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Опасно ли детям учиться в одном классе с ВИЧ-инфицированным ребенком?
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НМУ имени А. А. Богомольца
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Відповіді на питання з 1-ого модуля з англійської мови!!! (шпора, архив, *.doc)

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1.    When was the NMU founded? Whom by?
The University was founded in 1841 as a Medical Department of Kyiv Saint Volodymyr University. Prominent surgeon M.I. Pyrohov was the founder of this department.
2.    When did our university assume the status of an independent higher medical institution?
After its reorganization in 1921 the institution assumed the status of an independent higher medical institution.
3.     When was the institute named in honor of academician Bohomolets? Speak on O. Bohomolets contributions into medicine.
In 1946 the institute was named after Academician O.O. Bohomolets who was the founder of a large school of pathophysiologists. Bohomolets’s ideas on a series of problems were far ahead of the level of science of that time and were proved true by investigations much later.
4.    How many faculties are there at our university now? What are they?
There are 8 faculties at the university now: the First, the Second, the Third and Fourth Medical, Pharmaceutical, Stomatological, Medico-Psychological nad the Faculty for Training Military Doctors.
5.    What scientist contributed to the development of the NMU? Speak on Pirogov medical achievements.
Pyrohov devised the plaster cast and Pyrohov amputation, a method of severing the foot so that part of the heel bone is left in the stump to give added support to the lower end og the leg bones.
He in fact created a new medical science, field surgery, and suggested new, rational principles for grouping, distribution and evacuation of the wounded. V.A Oppel said: " His results were not exceeded by anyone and couldn’t be exceeded at all”
Medical Education in Ukraine
6.    What are the requirements for entering a medical university?
To enter a higher medical education establishment one should pass external admission testing and only those who achieved a good results are admitted.
7.    What is the period of internship? What does it depend on?
¬The period of internship depending on the chosen medical career.
8.    How many years does it takes to become a doctor?
The period of training at most Ukrainian medical schools in 5 years to become a pharmacist or dentist and 6 year to become a specialist in great variety of medical specialties.
9.    Speak on module system of medical education in Ukraine?
An academic year consist of two terms, and according to the module system of training each subject consist of some modules – each subject has a different number of modules. Due to this system of training at the end of each module students take credit test and in some subjects – exams.
Medical Education in the USA
10.    Speak on premedical study in the USA. How long does it last?
After finishing secondary studies those young people who are interested in medicine must complete 3-4 years of higher education in a college or university. This period of college or university studies is called "the premedical phase”.
11.    What is the role of special admission committee?
Special admission committees have personal interviews with the candidate in order to asses the candidate’s general qualities, his character and his ability to study medicine.
12.    What subjects do medical students learn during medical studies?
In the first year the students study anatomy, biophysics, biochemistry, physiology, bacteriology, histology. In the second year they study microbiology, pathology, physical diagnosis, pharmacology and laboratory diagnosis. During the final two years the curriculum consists of clinical subjects.
13.    Is medical education free or not? What is the approximate tuition fee?
Medical education is not free in the USA. Only a small part of students receive scholarships. The government financed universities charge less while the tuition of the private colleges and universities is extremely high. Tuition – 9.500$
14.    When do students take Step one, Step two and Step three.
Once students successfully complete pre-clinical training, they generally take Step 1 of the medical licensing boards.
DurinUng the fourth year in clinical study most medical student take Step 2 of the medical licensing boards.
15.    What grading methods are used by most medical schools?
Most medical schools use the pass/fail scheme.

Medical education in GB
16.    Describe the procedure of entering a medical school in GB
To enter a medical school in Great Britain candidates must pass entrance examinations. Entrance examinations are both oral and written. Students take these examinations at the end of 6-year secondary-school course, generally at the age of 18-19. To enter a faculty of medicine or a medical school, it is required that such subjects as chemistry, physics and biology or mathematics should be taken at the advanced level.
17.    What is the term of medical training?
Undergraduate education occupies five years, consisting essentially of two years of basic science and three years of clinical work.
18.    Speak on so-called sessionals. What are requirements before finals in obstetrics and Gynecology?
At the end of each term and after each special course students take exams. These are called sessionals. Most of the exams are written. They include academic and practical problems. Before finals in obstetrics and gynecology the students must assist during the delivery of at least 20 babies.
19.    What is the period of internship of GB? Make comments of it. What certificate does a doctor get after internship?
The period of internship is 1 year. The newly qualified doctors must serve for six months as a house physician and six months as a house surgeon under supervision of his medical school. After the internship a young doctor obtains a "Certificate of Experience” from the medical school and he or she may work as a medical practitioner.
20.    Is residency obligatory in GB? Speak on its duration and salary?
Further specialization requires training in residency. It takes from 2 to 7 years depending upon the chosen field of medicine. The salary of residents is higher than the salary of interns. After residency a specialist gets a rather high salary.
21.    What degrees are required for registration as a medical practitioner?
The degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery give the right for the registration as a general practitioner.
Human Body
22.    What does the face consist of?
Upper part of face composed of the forehead and the temples. The two sides of the lower face are called the cheeks. The two jaws (upper and lower) form the framework of the mouth. The lower jaw also gives shape to the chin.
23.    What are principle organs in the chest and the abdominal cavity?
The chest contains the heart and lungs. The abdomen contains the kidneys, the stomach, the lover, the gall bladder, the spleen, the urinary bladder and the intestines or bowels.
24.    What are the upper and lower extremities divided into?
The upper extremity is divided into the shoulder, the upper arm, the forearm and the hand. Between the upper arm and the forearm there is the elbow. Each hand has four fingers and one thumb.
The part of the lower extremity are the thigh, the lower leg and the foot. The back of the lower leg called calf. The foot consists of the heel, the sole and the toes.
25.    What are the principle parts of the skeleton?
The 206 bones that comprise the adult human skeleton are usually divided for the purpose of study into two parts: the central axial skeleton, consisting of the bones of the skull, rib cage and the vertebral column, and the appendicular skeleton , consisting og the bones of the shoulders, arms, hips and legs.
26.    Name the systems of the body and their functions?
The Circulatory System , The alimentary system, The urinary system.
27.    What parts does the circulatory system comprise? What is its function?
The circulatory system consists of three essential parts: the blood, the heart and blood vessels.
28.    Speak on the composition of blood. Type cells in the blood, their functions.
The blood is made up of two parts, plasma and blood cells. Plasma is composed mostly of water and waste substances.
The corpuscles are cells and are divided into red corpuscles and white corpuscles.
The red corpuscles are minute, disc-shaped bodies. The red corpuscles are, therefore, the oxygen carriers of the body. The white corpuscles or leukocytes are larger than the red cells but less numerous.  The function of leukocytes is primarily that of protecting against infection.
29.    What are the types of blood? Give short characteristics to main types. Which blood type is most useful for emergencies?
There are four main types, labeled A, B, O or AB and more than 200 minor types known. Forty-six per cent of people are blood group O, 42 per cent group A, 9 per cent group B and 3 per cent group AB. The definition of these groups is based on the presence or absence of two chemicals, or agglutinates, A and B. Blood O contains neither agglutinogen. Blood group O is known as the "universal donor blood” because it can be given in limited quantities to any recipient; blood group AB known as universal recipient.
30.    What does the digestive system consist of? Speak on the functions of the liver, pancreas, stomach duodenum, small and large intestines, rectum.
The alimentary canal begins at the mouth and end at the anus. It consists of the oral cavity, the gullet or esophagus, the stomach, the intestines.
In intestines nourished parts of food absorbed into blood for the nourishment of the body.
31.    What parts does the urinary system include?
History of Medicine
32.    What methods did people use in the past to prevent illnesses?
To prevent illnesses people use magic and pray. Also they wear amulets.
33.    What is acupuncture? Why has it become so widely used?
Originally acupuncture was used to treat disease. Now scientist believe that the needles may stimulate the brain to produce morphine like painkillers called endorphins and enkephalins and that is effectiveness in controlling chronic pain.
34.    What was Hippocrates contribution into medicine?
Hippocrates freed medicine from superstition. He established the facts that disease was a natural process, that its symptoms were the reactions of the natural forces of the body. Hippocrates noted the effect of food, of occupation and, especially, of climate in causing disease. Also Hippocrates prescribed blood-letting.
35.    How were disease treated in early society?
In ancient civilization medical advice came from healers and folk wisdom. Fold medicine prescribed a dirty sock around the neck if you wanted to cure the common cold or a pair of shoes placed upside down under the bed to relieve leg cramps. Tobacco juice was supposed to heal an earache and black pepper to cure asthma.
Healt care system in Ukraine
36.    What are the core components of Ukraine Health Care?
The core components of Ukraine Health Care include the Ministry of Public Health Care, responsible for setting national health polices, and certain specialized health instutions.
37.    How is the present health care system organized?
Today, the health care system is a complex multilayered system where responsibilities in health care sector are distributed among central government, 27 regional, numerous municipal and district, township and village levels.
38.    What health problems are of prime importance at present.
39.    What aggravates poor access to the medical care in Ukraine?
40.    What are the main causes of death among working-age make patients?

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